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Japanese Particles
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Particles

Connecting words together to form sentences. They immediately follow nouns, verbs, and adjectives to indicate the various meanings or functions. There are about 188 particles used the Japanese language. Most particles are written in hiragana and a few are written in kanji.

Useful links, more info about particles:
wikipedia.org/particles, guidetojapanese.org

は (wa) Topic Marker

When used as a particle わ is written as は but pronounced as わ. Follows the first noun indicating the topic.

I am cold.
わたし さむいです。

You look cold.
あなた さむいですね

か (ka) ? Question Marker

Indicates a question

Adding か to the end of a sentence will change the sentence to a question with no changes to the word order required.

Is it twelve o'clock?
十二時です

Do you understand?
わかあります

が (ga) Subject Marker

Identifies new subject or something unspecified. が(ga) can be used instead of は(wa) when the subject is new or new information is introduced. Also used when the subject is unknown (who, what, where) usually when asking a question.

に (ni) location or Direction

Indicates going (on~ward) or express dative.

へ (e) Direction

Indicates direction.

を (o/wo) Object Marker

Indicates the object noun followed by the verb.